Data Security and Privacy Challenges in Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing

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Cloud computing is the next generation paradigm in computation. Cloud computing environment makes it possible for the delivery of resources and application on demand over the internet. The cloud technology is made of software and hardware resources in the data centres with the capability of providing diverse services over the internet with the aim of satisfying the requirement of users. IT enables the ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources.  Cloud computing is essential in providing convenient on-demand network access to configurable computing resources that are shared. Configurable computing resources include various components such as virtual servers, network resources, software services, platforms and computing infrastructure. Cloud computing is a new computing archetype with the capability of providing services on demand at a minimal cost. There are three models of cloud computing model that include infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS).

Data Security

The fact that the application of Information Technology (IT) consistently faces the problems of data security cannot be disputed. Data security has emerged to be one of the most significant barriers to the adoption of cloud computing technology. Data security involves various issues like trust, legal matters, compliance, and privacy. Data security is a serious concern since data in cloud computing are in different components such as servers, storage devices, smartphones, and wireless sensor networks.

Unlike the traditional information system, cloud computing has more complicated data security issues. Cloud computing can only be trustworthy if the security concerns of the users are rectified. A trustworthy environment is considered to be a key prerequisite for winning the confidence of the users to adopt cloud computing technology.  The two most important factors that can facilitate the successful use of cloud computing are data protection and security.  Although there are several techniques for data protection and security proposed by research studies, there is a need for further enhancement of techniques of data protection.

Cloud data security encompasses several aspects such as the availability of data, data protection, secure transmission of data, protection of data, and data location. Security challenges facing cloud computing are multi-tenancy issues, threats, external malicious attacks, disruption of services and the loss of data. Cloud computing requires the adoption of a robust data security framework. The three main potential threats to the adoption of cloud computing include security, privacy, and trust. Despite that fact that cloud computing is capable of saving an organization time and money, trusting the system is considered to be more important since it is handling data which is the real asset of an organization. The application of effective data protection and prevention techniques is crucial in trusting the entire cloud computing system.

Strategies for Addressing Data Security Issues in Cloud Computing

Tackling data security and privacy in cloud computing is vital in increasing the trust and confidence of users as well as leveraging the immense benefits associated with cloud solutions. The security, management, and monitoring of resources remain to be major issues in cloud computing. There is currently no standardized rules and regulation for deploying applications in the cloud. The establishment of standardized protocols in the cloud is crucial in boosting the integrity of the system. The dynamics of the cloud environment have rendered several novel techniques infective in ensuring total security of the cloud data. Privacy and security of data in cloud computing can be ensured by focusing on segregation of data, security of the cloud, and privacy protection. Addressing data security and privacy issues is essential in removing the barriers and hurdles that are hindering the rapid growth of cloud computing.

One of the easiest ways of stopping the implementation of a new technological solution is to raise security red flag. A project can come to a halt once security concerns have been raised around a new IT solution. As cloud infrastructure and computing become common in enterprise IT one of the biggest hurdles to its adoption revolves around the security of the cloud. The creation of a security strategy plan is considered to be essential for enterprise IT organizations. The first essential step in the adoption of cloud computing is partnering with a service provider that has a strong security capability. The organization should take an active role in ensuring the security and management of risk. The enterprise resources of the organization can be secured using seven basic steps that provide a proven methodology for realizing cost-effective security and privacy of data and information. Appropriate execution of the procedures can enable the organization to gain the cost and business advantages associated with cloud computing without compromising the security of enterprise applications.

The first step is reviewing the objectives of the organization. It is essential for loud security plans to start with a basic understanding of business goals. The focus of security is to enable people, technologies and processes. Gaining executive input is vital in ensuring the protection of assets with proper safeguard. It also ensures that all parties have a good understanding of the strategic goals.  

The second step is maintaining a risk management program. The program should be developed centrally and viewed holistically. The establishment of a risk management program in cloud computing is essential in the reduction of the overall risks to the organization.  It is also useful in the prioritization and utilization of resources as well as the provision of a long0term strategy to a business.

The third step is the creation of a security plan that supports the objectives of the organization. It is vital to establish an objective with measurable outcomes. The goals should be capable of supporting the growth and stability of the organization. These goals should comprise of the following: specific date of completion, measurable expected outcome, and verification of achievements. Careful analysis needs to be conducted by security professionals. Necessary controls and auditing capabilities should also be performed by security personnel with the aim of mitigating threats and maintaining a reasonable security program that can offer protection to the assets of the organization.

The fourth procedure is the establishment of corporate-wide support. The establishment of the levels of security that are capable of meeting the objective of the organization as well as complying with the policies if risk management and regulatory requirements are very vital. The organization should focus on establishing centrally managed security measures that can be implemented efficiently across the organization without any significant effect on productivity.

Insight of Kenya Population Distribution (2019)

Impact of Physical Exercise on Mitochondria

It has been established that mitochondrial content can be increased and enhanced through physical exercise. Early observation by comparing mitochondrial content in groups of muscle in animals during which it emerged that the mitochondrial content of breast muscle of chickens that rarely fly is less in comparison to that of pigeons that fly for long periods.  Muscles that are continuously working such as the heart tend to have more mitochondrial content and activity than muscles whose actions are sporadic like the back muscles. Involving muscles in regular and sustained activity increases their mitochondrial activity and content.

3D mitochondria illustration

Although mitochondria exist in most cells, the amount found in skeletal muscles is of great importance. The amount of mitochondria in the human body tends to decrease with age. The number of intracellular organelles can be increased in the body of older adults through exercise. Regular exercise can play a significant role in increasing mitochondrial content. Exercise is considered to be a realistic and practical way of increasing energy and endurance in both young and old individuals. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises are considered important in mitochondrial biogenesis. The focus of the aerobic exercise is endurance while anaerobic is strength. These two types of exercises are vital in maintaining an active and healthy lifestyle by stimulating and increasing mitochondria. Research findings indicate that aerobic exercise contributes to a greater concentration of mitochondria.

Resistance exercise does not necessarily lead to a significant increase in mitochondria but is associated with increased muscle.  Research findings have shown that resistance exercise can increase both muscle and mitochondria in untrained muscle. On the contrary, the muscles that are trained regularly, mitochondria tend to be contestant while the growth of muscles tends to increase. Mitochondria increases at a slower rate with endurance exercise after the initial spike.  Resistance exercise is capable of stimulating an increased concentration of mitochondrial to a certain degree. Although aerobic and anaerobic exercise contributes to the formation of muscle and mitochondria, aerobic exercise contributes to a continuous increase in the amount of intracellular organelle present in the cell. Endurance exercise has proven to be effective in the continuous stimulation of mitochondrial growth.

Endurance exercise is considered to be a powerful tool for improving both the health and performance of individuals. Physical activity is widely recognized as effective in treating and preventing a wide range of ailments. Increasing the function and content of mitochondria is considered the most effective outcome associated with endurance training within exercising muscles. The quality and quantity of mitochondria have been associated with several positive health benefits that occur after training. A strong positive correlation has been realized between high mitochondrial content and endurance performance. Oxidative capacity of muscles and endurance performance can strongly be correlated to high mitochondrial content.

The Impact of Physical Exercise on the Body

Regular physical exercise positively affects organs of the body and decreases the risks of chronic disease like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Engaging in exercise at a regular basis improves cognitive abilities, boost the immune system, maintain muscles tone, increase lifespan and improve sleep. All these beneficial effects of regular exercise can be attributed to enhanced functionality of the mitochondria in its role of producing energy for the body. Research studies have shown that both numbers and content of the mitochondria can be enhanced through regular physical training.

The plasticity of skeletal muscle as well as its adaptation to exercise has been widely investigated because of its essential role in exercise performance and the promotion of health. Exercise stimuli lead to repetitive contraction of muscles thereby improving cardiovascular output. It regulates endothelial dysfunction and metabolic disorders like obesity and insulin resistance. Examining the molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise has been made possible following the advancement in proteomic tools and data analysis. Several studies have been conducted with the aim of investigating proteome adaptation to acute and chronic exercise. The physiology of mitochondria and its replication in response to physical training has a profound effect on health.

Energy production in body cells

Mitochondria are tiny intracellular structures that are commonly referred to as the powerhouse since they are responsible for the production of energy. The organelle plays a key role in transforming energy from food into cellular energy. Physical exercise is crucial in increasing the number of mitochondria in particular muscle groups that are being worked out. Increasing the number of mitochondria improves the ability of the body to produce energy.  Individuals with more mitochondria are capable of training longer and faster, as well as generating more energy. Mitochondria convert chemical energy from food into cellular energy using oxygen in a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. The process occurs inside the mitochondria.

Mitochondria fuels the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using fat, proteins and carbohydrate. Oxygen is required in the production of ATP in mitochondria through a process referred to as oxidative phosphorylation. Energy release occurs when ATP is broken down to Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP).  The energy is used in powering various cellular processes like the contraction of muscles. Mitochondria tend to be more in cells with a high and constant supply of energy. The fraction of mitochondrion in cardiac muscle cells is more than 25% since a constant flow of ATP is needed to keep the heart beating.


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